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Acetal plastic is a thermoplastic material that widely used in automotive and electronic industries. The material required has low friction, high stiffness and excellent dimension stability. Acetal is mostly used in gear wheels, eyeglasses, ball bearing and locking systems.
Properties of Polyoxymethylene/Acetal Plastic Material
1. Good heat resistance power
2. Good electrical property
3. Less water absorption
4. Low coefficient
Where Acetal Plastic Materials Mostly Used
1. Mechanical Gears & equipment
2. Electrical insulator & connectors
3. Vehicle Tanks
4. Structural glass in construction site
5. Musical instruments
6. Sports materials
Nylon in the family of synthetic polymer and mostly used in fibre cable, films, flooring, rubber reinforcement and shapes like car parts and electrical equipment. Nylon is a thermoplastic material that becomes flexible or moldable above a specific temperature and turns solid on cooling.
Nylon plastic first used commercially in 1938 for manufacturing nylon bristled toothbrush and later on in 1939 it is introduced as a fabric at a New York World`s Fair.
Generally, Nylon are is when appropriate monomers (chemical building blocks used to make up polymers) are combined to form a chain via condensation of polymerisation reaction.
Properties of Nylon Plastic
1. Good sunlight resistance power
2. High melting point
3. Good colour fastness nature
4. High Resistance against insect, bacteria, fungi, rot and other chemicals
5. Compact modular structure
6. High stretching power
Where Nylon Plastic Mostly Used
1. Fibre Cable
2. Shapes (Car Parts, Machine Screw, Gears, injection)
3. Food Packaging Materials
4. Flooring Materials
6. Electrical Equipment`s
A general purpose acetal; the only porosity-free acetal product available today. Investments in process technology by Quadrant EPP now provide the performance and machinability of acetal without center core porosity. An in-line photometric quality procedure assures every plate and rod is porosity-free as measured by Quadrant EPP’s quick check dye penetrant test. Acetron® GP natural is FDA, USDA, NSF, Canada AG and 3A-Dairy compliant.
Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene, often abbreviated as ABS, is an opaque engineering thermoplastic widely used in electronic housings, auto parts, consumer products, pipe fittings, lego toys and many more. Get detailed technical information about ABS polymer and know more about its key properties, limmitations, applications, processing conditions and much more.
Delrin® maintains many beneficial features that make it a very valuable material for injection molding and extrusion applications. Some of the features that separates manufactured Delrin® plastic parts from other materials, includes:
- High resistance to repeated impacts
- Advanced mechanical strength & rigidity
- Endures fatigue
- Increased dimensional stability
- Excellent resistance to solvents, chemicals, moisture & gasoline
- Easily fabricated
- Designed to be used in a wide range of temperatures
Best bearing and wear nylon product available today. Proprietary type 6 nylon formulation produced using Quadrant’s Monocast® process. Solid lubricant additives impart self-lubricating, high pressure/velocity and superior wear resistance characteristics. Nylatron NSM was developed specifically for demanding applications where larger size parts are required. It is ideal for bearings, gears and wear pads. In wear applications, Nylatron NSM lasts up to 10 times longer than standard Type 6 nylon.
Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is a semi-crystalline, high-performance engineering thermoplastic. This rigid opaque (grey) material offers a unique combination of mechanical properties, resistance to chemicals, wear, fatigue and creep as well as exceptionally high temperature resistance, up to 260°C (480°F).The polymer belongs to polyketone family of polymers (PEK, PEEK, PEEKK, PEKK, PEKEKK) and amongst them, PEEK is the most widely used and manufactured in large scale.
Polycarbonate IS used in engineering are strong, tough materials, and some grades are optically transparent. They are easily worked, molded, and thermoformed. Because of these properties, polycarbonates find many applications. Polycarbonate does not have a unique resin identification code (RIC) and are identified as “Other”, 7 on the RIC list. Products made from polycarbonate can contain the precursor monomer bisphenol A (BPA).
(PTFE) is a synthetic fluoropolymer of tetrafluoroethylene that has numerous applications. The well-known brand name of PTFE-based formulas is Teflon by Chemours. Chemours was a spin-off from DuPont, which originally discovered the compound in 1938. Another popular brand name of PTFE is Syncolon by Synco Chemical Corporation.
PTFE is a fluorocarbon solid, as it is a high molecular weight compound consisting wholly of carbon and fluorine. PTFE is hydrophobic: neither water nor water-containing substances wet PTFE, as fluorocarbons demonstrate mitigated London dispersion forces due to the high electronegativity of fluorine. PTFE has one of the lowest coefficients of friction of any solid.
PTFE is used as a non-stick coating for pans and other cookware. It is non-reactive, partly because of the strength of carbon–fluorine bonds, and so it is often used in containers and pipework for reactive and corrosive chemicals. Where used as a lubricant, PTFE reduces friction, wear, and energy consumption of machinery. It is commonly used as a graft material in surgical interventions. It is also frequently employed as coating on catheters; this interferes with the ability of bacteria and other infectious agents to adhere to catheters and cause hospital-acquired infections.
UHMW (ultra high molecular weight polyethylene) is an extremely tough plastic with high abrasion and wear resistance. The versatility of polyethylene has made it a popular plastic for countless industrial applications that require durability, low friction, and chemical resistance. Applications include UHMW wear strips, chain guides, and marine dock fender pads.
To be classified as an alloy, a range or minimum amount of alloying elements such as nickel, molybdenum, chromium, vanadium, etc. is specified or elements are added to obtain an alloying effect.
Alloy steel bars and plates are generally given some type of appropriate thermal processing such as annealing or quench and tempering. The addition of alloying elements increases the alloy bar’s or plate’s hardenability (note: alloying elements do not make the metal harder just by their existence in metal, but rather increase the depth to which the alloy bar or alloy plate can be hardened by appropriate heat treatment).
The proper alloy can also provide improved fatigue strength in addition to increased wear and toughness. Alloy metals have the potential to achieve superior combinations of properties not attainable with other metals.
41L40 CF ANNEALED
4140 CF ANNEALED
4140 HR ANNEALED
4150 HR ANNEALED
4340 HR Q&T
Aluminum is remarkable for the metal’s low density and for its ability to resist corrosion. Structural components made from aluminum and its alloys are vital to the aerospace industry and are important in other areas of transportation and structural materials.
2011 – This free machining alloy compares favorably with free cutting brass. It is the most suitable alloy for machining on automatics, milling machines, lathes, planers, shapers and other machine tools, and is the most widely used alloy for all types of screw machine parts. It can be machined at high speeds and comparatively heavy feeds. Machined surfaces are bright and smooth. Mechanical finishes readily match joined parts. Mechanical properties and hardness are excellent; corrosion resistance fair. Weldability by resistance method is fair; other welding is not recommended.
2024 – Known as the “aircraft alloy” in machining rod, this alloy has properties higher than 2017 and 2014. Though formability is generally considered only fair in the cold state, it is one of the most popular alloys for cold heading and roll threading applications. Can be machined to a high finish. Corrosion resistance is fair. Applications include Phillips head screws, wood screws, hydraulic fittings and small parts in clocks and meters. It is also the basic alloy for cold finished rectangular bar where strength and machinability are essential for precision fittings and parts.
6061 – Generally selected where welding or brazing is required, or for its particularly high corrosion resistance in all tempers. Formability is excellent in 0 temper, good in T4. Machining is more difficult than with other machining alloys; it is particularly gummy in 0 condition, fair in hard tempers. Corrosion resistance and appearance after anodizing are highest of screw machine alloys, though properties are generally lower. Applications include railway car components, bridge components, pipe fittings, wheels and various transportation end uses.
7075 – 7075 has been the strongest and hardest alloy sold commercially for decades. 7175 is more pure, but may not be suitable for fracture toughness applications. The superior stress corrosion resistance of the T73 and T7351 tempers of 7075 rolled or cold finished rod have made them a logical replacement for alloys 2014, 2017 and 2024 in many of the most critical applications. In machined parts and forgings it is used primarily in aircraft, ordnance, highly stressed structural applications, keys, small gears, etc. It is more difficult to forge than other alloys, but is often selected because of its properties. Machinability is good, resistance welding satisfactory, finishing characteristics excellent, and corrosion resistance fair.
Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc. The proportions of zinc and copper can be varied to create a range of brasses with varying properties. Brass has higher malleability than bronze. The relatively low melting point of brass (900C to 940C, 1652F to 1724F, depending on composition) and its flow characteristics make it a relatively easy material to cast. By varying the proportions of copper and zinc, the properties of the brass can be changed, allowing hard and soft brasses.
Brass bars are the most widely used and least expensive of copper-based alloys. They have relatively good corrosion resistance, moderately high strength, and in some compositions exceptionally good ductility and excellent forming characteristics when shaped by pressing, deep drawing, rolling and machining. Improved tensile properties are the result of cold working. After cold working, they can be softened and recrystallized by appropriate annealing. Adding lead to the brasses results in free cutting of free-machining alloys in which the elemental lead is present as uniformly dispersed particles. The high content of lead results in a relatively low ductility and plasticity.
Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, usually with tin as the main additive. It is extremely strong, resistant to atmospheric corrosion, and is harder than copper on its own. The hardness is due to the alloying of the copper with tin or other metals. It is a dull-gold color, similar to brass, but has indistinct rings on its surface that differentiate it.
Bronze has been used by humans for thousands of years, making it one of the oldest metals still in use. For everything from tools to instruments to works of art, bronze is a versatile metal that is applicable to many industries. Alro Steel stocks a range of bronze grades to meet your needs.
Bronze metal offers a variety of characteristics that make it an ideal material for many industrial, architectural, and more. Depending on the alloy composition, bronze can withstand anywhere from 35,000 psi to 85,000 psi. for aluminum bronze and up to approx. 119,000 psi for manganese bronze. It is a hard, brittle metal that has a relatively low melting point. Although bronze is commonly thought of as brownish in color it is actually a pink shade.
As bronze materials are exposed to the environment develop a patina that protects the material from deterioration develops, causing color change. Bronze is sometimes treated during manufacturing to develop a patina. Bronze is fusible and is hence easier to cast than some other metals. It is also harder than pure iron and far more resistant to corrosion.
932 BEARING BRONZE
954 ALUMINUM BRONZE
959 ALUMINUM BRONZE
Carbon levels are divided as follows:
- low carbon = .06% to .25% carbon content (mild steel)
- medium carbon = .25% to .55% carbon content (medium steel)
- high carbon = >.55% to 1.00% carbon content (hard steel)
Carbon grade series are:
- 10XX = non-resulpherized carbon steel, with manganese 1.00% maximum (example
- 1018, 1045 and 1050).
- 11XX = resulpherized carbon steel (for example 1117, 1141 and 1144).
- 12XX = rephosphorized and resulpherized carbon steel (for example 12L14 and 1215).
The second two numbers in AISI-SAE designations indicate the approximate carbon content for steel (for example, in 1018 the carbon range is .15% to .20%; .18% [shown as “18”] is the approximate carbon content). The term “carbon steel” may also be used in reference to steel which is not stainless steel; in this use carbon steel may include alloy steels. As the carbon content rises, steel has the ability to become harder and stronger through heat treating, but this also makes it less ductile. Regardless of the heat treatment, a higher carbon content reduces weldability. In carbon steels, the higher carbon content lowers the melting point.
Carbon Steel Grades
- A311 stressproof
- A311 stressproof TG&P
- Diamond case shafting
- 1018 CF
- 1018 HR
- 1045 CF
- 1045 HR
- 1045 TG&P
- 11L17 CF
- 1117 CF
- 1117 HR
- 1141 CF
- 1141 HR
- 1144 CF
- 1144 HR
- 12L14 CF
- 1215 CF
Copper is a ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity. Pure copper is soft and malleable; a freshly exposed surface has a reddish-orange color. It is used as a conductor of heat and electricity, a building material, and a constituent of various metal alloys. Architectural structures built with copper corrode to give green verdigris or patina. As a distributor of metals, Alro maintains a large inventory of copper in several grades in sheet, rod, tube, bars, and flats. We offer next-day delivery when you order from our online store. Alro carries a wide range of metal products, including alloy, aluminum, carbon steel, tool steel, copper, and more. Our copper offerings include copper bars, pipe/tube, plate, and sheet.
Common Uses of Copper
Copper has an extremely wide range of applications based on its conductivity, corrosion resistance, workability, and beauty. Because of copper’s properties it is well-suited for domestic and industrial plumbing goods, contacts and switchgears, and electrical wiring. Copper is widely used in the housing and telecommunications industries in everything from electrical wiring to architectural elements. It’s beautiful color and sound have also made it popular with artists. Other uses for copper include fabricating fasteners, flashing, firing pins and making industrial pumps, welding fixtures, switchgears, electrical and plumbing parts.
Grades of Copper Stocked
110 Copper, CDA C11000, a grade with the highest electrical conductivity of any metal except silver. C110 Copper has high electrical and thermal conductivity, good corrosion resistance and solderability. End uses include welding fixtures, electrical components, and plumbing fittings.
C17200, also known as Alloy 25, the most commonly utilized beryllium copper (BeCu) alloy and is notable for exhibiting the highest strength and hardness compared to commercial copper alloys. 172 copper strength and hardness are similar to that of steel. C17200 copper’s ultimate tensile and Rockwell hardness properties in a peak aged condition are in the 200 ksi range and RC 45 respectively (electrical conductivity 22% IACS minimum).
172 BeCu copper is a high strength beryllium copper mold alloy. It is noted for its high thermal conductivity. It is most often used in blow molds, cores, inserts in injection molds, injection nozzles, hot runners, and manifolds.
Stainless steel is a steel alloy that contains a minimum of 10.5% to 11% chromium content and a maximum of 1.2% carbon. It is made by melting elements together, typically iron ore, chromium, nickel, carbon, and others, and then casting the materials into a solid steel. The steel is passed through a series of forming machines, depending on the desired shape of the stainless steel, and then the material is annealed, descaled, and cut in the desired size. Before it is complete, surface finishes are added to make the material smooth and easy to clean.
Steel alloys are considered stainless steel if the material has specified corrosion or oxidation resistant properties. Different grades of stainless steel offer different levels of corrosion resistance, depending on their chromium content.
Properties of Stainless Steel
Stainless steel does not readily corrode, rust or stain with water as ordinary steel does, but despite the name it is not fully stain-proof, most notably under low oxygen, high salinity, or poor circulation environments. It is also called corrosion-resistant steel or CRES when the alloy type and grade are not detailed, particularly in the aviation industry.
Stainless steel differs from carbon steel by the amount of chromium present. Unprotected carbon steel rusts readily when exposed to air and moisture. This iron oxide film (the rust) is active and accelerates corrosion by forming more iron oxide, and due to the greater volume of the iron oxide this tends to flake and fall away.
Stainless steels contain sufficient chromium to form a passive film of chromium oxide, which prevents further surface corrosion and blocks corrosion from spreading into the metal’s internal structure, and due to the similar size of the steel and oxide ions they bond very strongly and remain attached to the surface.
Benefits of Stainless Steel
Because of how many grades of stainless steel are available, the material can be used for many different applications and industries. Stainless steel offers a variety of benefits over other metals, depending on the intended application. These include:
Stain and Corrosion Resistance: The addition of chromium to stainless steel creates an invisible layer of chromium oxide that protects against stain and corrosion.
Heat and Fire Resistance: High-chromium and nickel-alloyed grades of stainless steel resist scaling and perform well at high temperatures.
Strength-to-Weight: High strength grades of stainless steel provide added strength in thinner material, allowing less material to be used for the same applications. Depending on application requirements, this can make these grades of stainless steel a cost-effective alternative to other metals.
100% Recyclable: Stainless steel can be re-melted and remolded, making it completely recyclable. Like many metals, this makes stainless steel an environmentally-friendly material.
Appearance and Cleanliness: One of the most appealing characteristics of stainless steel is its clean appearance. It is an easy-to-clean, easy-to-maintain metal that provides an aesthetically appealing design for many applications.
Common Uses of Stainless Steel
In addition to being low maintenance and corrosion-resistant, stainless steel is also available in a variety of shapes and sizes. Its versatility means that it can be used in a variety of industries.
- Stainless steel bars
- Stainless steel plates
- Structural stainless steel
- Stainless steel sheets
- Stainless steel tubing
- Stainless steel grating
- Stainless steel expanded metal
The variety of available shapes makes stainless steel ideal for many manufacturing applications, but it is also used in many other industries, from construction to transportation. Industries that utilize stainless steel include:
- Chemical, oil, and Gas
- Food and Catering
Stainless Steel Grades
- 17-4 GROUND AND POLISHED
- 303 GROUND AND POLISHED
- 304 GROUND AND POLISHED
- 316 GROUND AND POLISHED
Tool steel is a carbon and alloy steel that has ideal characteristics including high hardness, abrasion resistance, a good ability to retain its shape, even in higher temperatures.
Tool steel is commonly used in injection molding where resistance to abrasion is an important criterion. Its toughness also gives it non-deforming properties, allowing it to hold a cutting edge at various temperatures. Depending on the grade of tool steel it is also a popular choice for the manufacture of hand tools, cutting tools, and more.
Properties of Tool Steel
Tool steel is generally used in a heat-treated state. Many high carbon tool steels are also more resistant to corrosion due to their higher ratios of elements such as vanadium and niobium. Because of this, tool steel is often used for high-strength or wear-resistant applications.
Tool steel grades are made specifically for different applications so it’s good practice when selecting a grade to ask yourself a few questions first. For example:
• Is a keen cutting edge necessary, as in stamping dies?
• Must it withstand impact loading and service conditions encountered with hand tools such as axes, pickaxes, and quarrying implements?
• What is the expected edge temperature for use?
Edge temperature under expected use is an important factor of both composition and required heat treatment. Higher carbon grades are typically used for such applications as stamping dies, metal cutting tools, etc.
Tool Steel Grades
Grade selection is dependent on factors including budget, working temperature, and required characteristics for the application.
A2 tool steel: a versatile, air-hardening tool steel — good toughness and stability
D2 tool steel: wear resistant but not as tough as lower alloyed steels — very sensitive to heat treatment
O1 tool steel: cold work and low-alloy steel — more forgiving
S7 tool steel: air or oil hardening tool steel — known for high-impact toughness
DC53 tool steel: a general purpose, cold work die and mold steel — strength and toughness is like that of high-speed steels
Tool steel grades are made specifically for different applications so it’s good practice when selecting a grade to ask yourself a few questions first. For example – is a keen cutting edge necessary, as in stamping dies, must it withstand impact loading and service conditions encountered with hand tools such as axes, pickaxes, and quarrying implements. Edge temperature under expected use is an important factor of both composition and required heat treatment. Higher carbon grades are typically used for such applications as stamping dies, metal cutting tools, etc.
How Is Tool Steel Manufactured?
With a carbon content between 0.7% and 1.5%, tool steels are manufactured under carefully controlled conditions to produce the required quality. The manganese content is often kept low to minimize the possibility of cracking during water quenching. However, proper heat treating of these steels is important for adequate performance, and there are many suppliers who provide tooling blanks intended for oil quenching.
There are several processes that can be done to manufacture tool steel. These include: primary melting, electroslag melting, primary breakdown, rolling, hot and cold drawing, continuous casting, powder metallurgy, and osprey process. Often, tool steel is made from primarily scrap metal that is melted and then shaped into the desired tool.
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